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Sonia Maria Sotomayor was born in the New York City borough of The Bronx. Her father was Juan Sotomayor (born c. ), from the area of Santurce, San Juan, Puerto Rico, and her mother was Celina Báez (born ), an orphan from the neighborhood of Santa Rosa in Lajas, a still mostly rural area on Puerto Rico's southwest coast. · Italy’s UniCredit SpA said it’s been “paying particular attention” to geopolitical risks in Turkey, where the tumbling lira is driving down the value of its local banking venture.
Yes there will be a decrease in quantity supplied No, because the relation must be based on price-quantity I am glad I read further down: I know there will be many difficulties and challenges but I am determined to do it. If it does not succeed then it will be a lesson for me as well catmario4. Useful Information, your blog is sharing unique information I believe it is extremely important to consider the sources of information.
The following information is provided to help you understand the biases that may be inherent in this blog. The Baby Boom generation, which I am part of, has spent the past 30 years accumulating massive public debt that will be passed to our children, grandchildren, and subsequent generations.
I am not opposed to the reduction or elimination of any government spending program. Yet, politicians tend to call for reduced spending in general terms and fail to publicly declare specific cuts they would make. The primary cause of the massive U. I am willing to consider the expansion and addition of government programs as well. I do not mind how much or little the government provides to society as long as it is paid for.
I am willing to pay higher taxes for services deemed worthy, whether they be national defense, homeland security, or income assistance to those less fortunate than I. And I am certainly willing to pay less in taxes or to deposit any government check I receive. My generation, the Baby Boomers, has been very good at cutting taxes and increasing the size of government, regardless of which political party is in power.
This is a prescription for financial chaos that remains a horrible legacy for future generations. Sunday, May 11, Supply vs. It is extremely important to understand the difference between supply and quantity supplied. An increase in supply versus an increase in quantity supplied With an increase in supply: An increase in supply might be caused by: With an increase in quantity supplied: An increase in quantity supplied is caused by: A change in quantity supplied is represented as a movement along a supply curve.
An illustration of an increase in quantity supplied. There is a movement along the supply curve, but the supply curve does not shift. In this graph, there is a change is the quantity supplied, but supply does not change. June 20, at 3: Anonymous February 9, at Anonymous February 11, at 2: Sage Ricky September 8, at 1: Anonymous October 8, at 1: Anonymous February 12, at 2: Anonymous October 22, at Anonymous November 11, at 7: Anonymous November 23, at 9: Anonymous November 30, at 2: Anonymous January 14, at 7: Anonymous February 19, at 6: Anonymous April 29, at 9: Anonymous May 23, at 4: Anonymous June 24, at Anonymous September 2, at 1: In addition to her law firm work, Sotomayor found visible public service roles.
Based upon another recommendation from Cabranes,  Sotomayor was a member of the board of directors of the Puerto Rican Legal Defense and Education Fund from to During and , Sotomayor served on the board of the Maternity Center Association , a Manhattan-based non-profit group which focused on improving the quality of maternity care. Sotomayor had wanted to become a judge since she was in elementary school, and in she was recommended for a spot by Democratic New York senator Daniel Patrick Moynihan.
And in comparison to what my mother earns and how I was raised, it's not modest at all. Sotomayor was thus nominated on November 27, , by President George H. Bush to a seat on the U. Sotomayor became the youngest judge in the Southern District  and the first Hispanic federal judge in New York State. Sotomayor generally kept a low public profile as a district court judge. As a trial judge, she garnered a reputation for being well-prepared in advance of a case and moving cases along a tight schedule.
You can't do it. On March 30, , in Silverman v. Her ruling ended the baseball strike after days, the day before the new season was scheduled to begin. The Second Circuit upheld Sotomayor's decision and denied the owners' request to stay the ruling. You can't grow up in the South Bronx without knowing about baseball. In Dow Jones v. Department of Justice ,  Sotomayor sided with the Wall Street Journal in its efforts to obtain and publish a photocopy of the last note left by former Deputy White House Counsel Vince Foster.
Sotomayor ruled that the public had "a substantial interest"  in viewing the note and enjoined the U. Justice Department from blocking its release. In New York Times Co. Tasini , freelance journalists sued the New York Times Company for copyright infringement for the New York Times ' inclusion in an electronic archival database LexisNexis of the work of freelancers it had published.
Sotomayor ruled that the publisher had the right to license the freelancers' work. This decision was reversed on appeal, and the Supreme Court upheld the reversal; two dissenters John Paul Stevens and Stephen Breyer took Sotomayor's position. In Castle Rock Entertainment, Inc. Carol Publishing Group also in , Sotomayor ruled that a book of trivia from the television program Seinfeld infringed on the copyright of the show's producer and did not constitute legal fair use.
Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit , which was vacated by J. Therefore, the Republican majority decided to slow her confirmation. During her September hearing before the Senate Judiciary Committee , Sotomayor parried strong questioning from some Republican members about mandatory sentencing , gay rights , and her level of respect for Supreme Court Justice Clarence Thomas.
Ranking Democratic committee member Patrick Leahy objected to Republican use of a secret hold to slow down the Sotomayor nomination, and Leahy attributed that anonymous tactic to GOP reticence about publicly opposing a female Hispanic nominee. Straub —who, although advanced by Clinton and supported by Senator Moynihan, was considered much more acceptable by Republicans—in an unsuccessful effort to force earlier consideration of the Sotomayor confirmation.
During , several Hispanic organizations organized a petition drive in New York State, generating hundreds of signatures from New Yorkers to try to convince New York Republican senator Al D'Amato to push the Senate leadership to bring Sotomayor's nomination to a vote. It is stereotyping, and stereotyping is perhaps the most insidious of all problems in our society today.
Over her ten years on the Second Circuit, Sotomayor heard appeals in more than 3, cases and wrote about opinions where she was in the majority. Sotomayor's circuit court rulings led to her being considered a political centrist by the ABA Journal   and other sources and organizations. Across some cases involving business and civil law, Sotomayor's rulings were generally unpredictable and not consistently pro-business or anti-business.
In the Court of Appeals seat, Sotomayor gained a reputation for vigorous and blunt behavior toward lawyers appealing before her, sometimes to the point of brusque and curt treatment or testy interruptions.
Attorney Sheema Chaudhry said, "She's brilliant and she's qualified, but I just feel that she can be very, how do you say, temperamental. Lefcourt said, "She used her questioning to make a point, as opposed to really looking for an answer to a question she did not understand. Wesley said that his interactions with Sotomayor had been "totally antithetical to this perception that has gotten some traction that she is somehow confrontational.
In the decision Center for Reproductive Law and Policy v. Bush ,  Sotomayor upheld the Bush administration 's implementation of the Mexico City Policy , which states that "the United States will no longer contribute to separate nongovernmental organizations which perform or actively promote abortion as a method of family planning in other nations. Giuliani ,  Sotomayor dissented from her colleagues' ruling that the New York Police Department could terminate from his desk job an employee who sent racist materials through the mail.
Sotomayor argued that the First Amendment protected speech by the employee "away from the office, on [his] own time", even if that speech was "offensive, hateful, and insulting", and that therefore the employee's First Amendment claim should have gone to trial rather than being dismissed on summary judgment.
In , Sotomayor wrote the opinion for United States v. Some members of the media had wanted to publish the names of the jurors deciding Quattrone's case, and a district court had issued an order to forbid the publication of the juror's names. In United States v. Quattrone , Sotomayor wrote the opinion for the Second Circuit panel striking down this order on First Amendment grounds, stating that the media should be free to publish the names of the jurors.
The first trial ended in a deadlocked jury and a mistrial, and the district court ordered the media not to publish the names of jurors, even though those names had been disclosed in open court. Sotomayor held that although it was important to protect the fairness of the retrial, the district court's order was an unconstitutional prior restraint on free speech and violated the right of the press "to report freely on events that transpire in an open courtroom".
In , Sotomayor was on a three-judge panel in Doninger v. Niehoff  that unanimously affirmed, in an opinion written by Second Circuit Judge Debra Livingston , the district court's judgment that Lewis S. Mills High School did not violate the First Amendment rights of a student when it barred her from running for student government after she called the superintendent and other school officials "douchebags" in a blog post written while off-campus that encouraged students to call an administrator and "piss her off more".
Sotomayor was part of the three-judge Second Circuit panel that affirmed the district court's ruling in Maloney v. The Second Circuit's per curiam opinion noted that the Supreme Court has not, so far, ever held that the Second Amendment is binding against state governments.
On the contrary, in Presser v. Illinois , a Supreme Court case from , the Supreme Court held that the Second Amendment "is a limitation only upon the power of Congress and the national government, and not upon that of the state". Illinois precedent, the panel stated that only the Supreme Court has "the prerogative of overruling its own decisions,"  and the recent Supreme Court case of District of Columbia v.
Heller which struck down the district's gun ban as unconstitutional did "not invalidate this longstanding principle".
Cuomo , citing the case in their decision turning back a challenge to Chicago 's gun laws and noting the Supreme Court precedents remain in force until altered by the Supreme Court itself. While Sotomayor agreed that some of the strip searches at issue in the case were lawful, she would have held that due to "the severely intrusive nature of strip searches",  they should not be allowed "in the absence of individualized suspicion, of adolescents who have never been charged with a crime".
Knapek ,  Sotomayor rejected a Fourth Amendment challenge by a U. Department of Transportation employee whose employer searched his office computer. She held that, "Even though [the employee] had some expectation of privacy in the contents of his office computer, the investigatory searches by the DOT did not violate his Fourth Amendment rights"  because here "there were reasonable grounds to believe" that the search would reveal evidence of "work-related misconduct".
In , Sotomayor was part of the judge panel that ruled in Swedenburg v. Kelly that New York's law prohibiting out-of-state wineries from shipping directly to consumers in New York was constitutional even though in-state wineries were allowed to. The case, which invoked the 21st Amendment , was appealed and attached to another case.
The case reached the Supreme Court later on as Swedenburg v. Kelly and was overruled in a 5—4 decision that found the law was discriminatory and unconstitutional. Sotomayor was involved in the high-profile case Ricci v. DeStefano that initially upheld the right of the City of New Haven to throw out its test for firefighters and start over with a new test, because the City believed the test had a "disparate impact"  on minority firefighters.
No black firefighters qualified for promotion under the test, whereas some had qualified under tests used in previous years. The City chose not to certify the test results and a lower court had previously upheld the City's right to do this.
Several white firefighters and one Hispanic firefighter who had passed the test, including the lead plaintiff who has dyslexia and had put much extra effort into studying, sued the City of New Haven, claiming that their rights were violated.
A Second Circuit panel that included Sotomayor first issued a brief, unsigned summary order not written by Sotomayor affirming the lower court's ruling. Cabranes , by now a fellow judge on the court, objected to this handling and requested that the court hear it en banc. National Football League ,  Sotomayor upheld the National Football League 's eligibility rules requiring players to wait three full seasons after high school graduation before entering the NFL draft.
Maurice Clarett challenged these rules, which were part of the collective bargaining agreement between the NFL and its players, on antitrust grounds. Sotomayor held that Clarett's claim would upset the established "federal labor law favoring and governing the collective bargaining process". Dabit ,  Sotomayor wrote a unanimous opinion that the Securities Litigation Uniform Standards Act of did not preempt class action claims in state courts by stockbrokers alleging misleading inducement to buy or sell stocks.
In Correctional Services Corp. Malesko ,  Sotomayor, writing for the court, supported the right of an individual to sue a private corporation working on behalf of the federal government for alleged violations of that individual's constitutional rights.
Reversing a lower court decision, Sotomayor found that an existing Supreme Court doctrine, known as " Bivens "—which allows suits against individuals working for the federal government for constitutional rights violations—could be applied to the case of a former prisoner seeking to sue the private company operating the federal halfway house facility in which he resided.
The Supreme Court reversed Sotomayor's ruling in a 5—4 decision, saying that the Bivens doctrine could not be expanded to cover private entities working on behalf of the federal government.
Wallingford Board of Education ,  the parents of a black student alleged that he had been harassed due to his race and had been discriminated against when he was transferred from a first grade class to a kindergarten class without parental consent, while similarly situated white students were treated differently. Sotomayor agreed with the dismissal of the harassment claims due to lack of evidence, but would have allowed the discrimination claim to go forward.
She wrote in dissent that the grade transfer was "contrary to the school's established policies" as well as its treatment of white students, which "supports the inference that race discrimination played a role".
Kelly ,  Sotomayor wrote an opinion halting New York City's practice of seizing the motor vehicles of drivers accused of driving while intoxicated and some other crimes and holding those vehicles for "months or even years" during criminal proceedings. Noting the importance of cars to many individuals' livelihoods or daily activities, she held that it violated individuals' due process rights to hold the vehicles without permitting the owners to challenge the City's continued possession of their property.
Village of Port Chester and ,  a takings case, Sotomayor first ruled in for a unanimous panel that a property owner in Port Chester, New York was permitted to challenge the state's Eminent Domain Procedure Law. A district court subsequently rejected the plaintiff's claims and upon appeal the case found itself again with the Second Circuit. In , Sotomayor ruled with a panel majority that the property owner's due process rights had been violated by lack of adequate notice to him of his right to challenge a village order that his land should be used for a redevelopment project.
However, the panel supported the village's taking of the property for public use. Village of Port Chester ,  an unrelated case brought about by the same town's actions, Sotomayor joined a unanimous panel's summary order to uphold a trial court's dismissal — due to a statute of limitations lapse — of a property owner's objection to his land being condemned for a redevelopment project.
The ruling further said that even without the lapse, the owner's petition would be denied due to application of the Supreme Court's recent Kelo v. City of New London ruling. The Second Circuit's reasoning drew criticism from libertarian commentators. Since President Barack Obama 's election there was speculation that Sotomayor could be a leading candidate for a Supreme Court seat. The empathy to understand what it's like to be poor, or African-American, or gay, or disabled, or old.
Sotomayor's nomination won praise from Democrats and liberals, and Democrats appeared to have sufficient votes to confirm her. DeStefano received the most attention during the early nomination discussion,  motivated by the Republican desire to focus on the reverse racial discrimination aspect of the case.
Cuomo and was motivated by gun ownership advocates concerned about her interpretation of Second Amendment rights. Sotomayor's confirmation hearings before the Senate Judiciary Committee began on July 13, , during which she backed away from her "wise Latina" remark, declaring it "a rhetorical flourish that fell flat" and stating that "I do not believe that any ethnic, racial or gender group has an advantage in sound judgment.
Sotomayor cast her first vote as an associate Supreme Court justice on August 17, , in a stay of execution case. It involved the controversial aspect of the First Amendment and the rights of corporations in campaign finance;  Sotomayor dissented. Sotomayor's first major written opinion was a dissent in the Berghuis v. Thompkins case dealing with Miranda rights. Sebelius , Sotomayor showed her increasing familiarity with the Court and its protocols by directing the opening questions of the arguments to Donald Verrilli , the Solicitor General who was representing the government's position.
In succeeding Justice Souter, Sotomayor had done little to change the philosophical and ideological balance of the Court. However, there is a wide divergence among Catholics in general in their approaches to the law. There have been some deviations from the ideological pattern.
In a book on the Roberts Court, author Marcia Coyle assessed Sotomayor's position on the Confrontation Clause of the Sixth Amendment as a strong guarantee of the right of a defendant to confront his or her accusers. On January 20 and 21, , Sotomayor administered the oath to Vice President Joe Biden for the inauguration of his second term. Sotomayor became the first Hispanic and fourth woman to administer the oath to a president or vice president.
By the end of her fifth year on the court, Sotomayor had become especially visible in oral arguments and in passionate dissents from various majority rulings, especially those involving issues of race, gender and ethnic identity. In her reading of the constitutionality of the Obama health care law favoring the poor and disabled, she sided with Ginsburg against fellow liberals Breyer and Kagan.
Our society is too complex to use that kind of analysis. Mazda , which the court decided unanimously, she wrote a separate concurring opinion. Coyle, in her book on the Roberts Court stated that: During her tenure on the court, Sotomayor has also become recognizable as being among the court's strongest voices in supporting the rights of the accused.
North Carolina was a case in which the Supreme Court of the United States held that age is relevant when determining police custody for Miranda purposes. Sotomayor was assigned to write the majority opinion in the case. A police investigator visited J.
During the trial, attempts to suppress the statements given by J. The case was appealed and the Supreme Court agreed to hear the case. Sotomayor's opinion for the Court held that a child's age properly informs the Miranda custody analysis. Her opinion underscored the dangers of not applying age to the custody analysis, writing: California where the Court held that a child's age "would have affected how a reasonable person" in the suspect's position "would perceive his or her freedom to leave".
Alvarado was also cited, where the Court wrote that a child's age "generates commonsense conclusions about behavior and perception". Finally, Sotomayor's opinion pointed out that the law reflects the idea that a child's judgment is not the same as an adult's, in the form of legal disqualifications on children as a class e. Sotomayor's opinion was challenged by Associate Justice Samuel Alito who wrote a dissenting opinion for four Justices.
Alvarez , involving judicial review in which the Court struck down the Stolen Valor Act , a federal law that criminalized false statements about having a military medal. The law had been passed as an effort to stem instances where people falsely claimed to have won the medal in an attempt to protect the "valor" of those who really had.
While a majority of the Supreme Court agreed that the law was unconstitutional under the First Amendment 's free speech protections, it could not agree on a single rationale. Sotomayor was among four justices, along with Justices Roberts, Ginsburg and Kennedy, who concluded that a statement's falsity is not enough, by itself, to exclude speech from First Amendment protection. Justices Breyer and Kagan concluded that while false statements were entitled to some protection, the Stolen Valor Act was invalid because it could have achieved its objectives in less restrictive ways.
Justices Scalia, Thomas and Alito were in dissent. Most visibly during the term, in National Federation of Independent Business v. Sebelius , Sotomayor was part of a landmark 5—4 majority that upheld most of the provisions of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act while being part of a dissent against the reliance upon the Constitution's Taxing and Spending Clause rather than Commerce Clause in arriving at the support.
Legal writer Jeffrey Toobin wrote, "Sotomayor's concerns tended toward the earthbound and practical. Sometimes, during oral arguments, she would go on tangents involving detailed questions about the facts of cases that would leave her colleagues stupefied, sinking into their chairs.
This time, though, she had a simple line of inquiry. States require individuals to buy automobile insurance implicitly suggesting the unavoidable comparison to health insurance and the fairness of the applying the same principle to health insurance as well. In another high-profile June decision at the end of her third term, Sotomayor was part of a 5—3 majority in Arizona v. United States that struck down several aspects of the Arizona SB anti-illegal immigration law. In , Sotomayor's unjoined concurrence in the prior year's United States v.
Jones decision, in which she said that in the digital age, "It may be necessary to reconsider the premise that an individual has no reasonable expectation of privacy in information voluntarily disclosed to third parties," was cited by federal judge Richard Leon in his ruling that the National Security Agency 's bulk collection of Americans' telephony records likely violated the Fourth Amendment. On July 3, , six justices ordered an injunction that allowed Wheaton College of Illinois, a religiously affiliated university, an exemption from complying with Affordable Care Act's mandate on contraception.
Hobby Lobby , in which the conservative bloc had prevailed, and was opposed by the court's three female members: Sotomayor, Ginsburg and Kagan. They suggested that the Hobby Lobby decision was not the Court's conclusive opinion on birth control. In her dissent to the injunction, Sotomayor wrote that, "Those who are bound by our decisions usually believe they can take us at our word Sotomayor has maintained a public presence, mostly through making speeches, since joining the federal judiciary and throughout her time on the Supreme Court.
Sotomayor long lived in Greenwich Village in New York City and had few financial assets other than her home. There isn't anything there to report. I walk out and I see all kinds of people, which is the environment I grew up in and the environment I love.
She takes several daily insulin injections,  and her diabetes is considered to be well controlled. The trappings are not important to me, but, yes, I do believe in God. And, yes, I do believe in the commandments. She maintains ties with Puerto Rico, visiting once or twice a year, speaking there occasionally, and visiting cousins and other relatives who still live in the Mayagüez area.
Sotomayor said of the years following her divorce, that "I have found it difficult to maintain a relationship while I've pursued my career. In July , Sotomayor signed a contract with Alfred A.
Knopf to publish a memoir about the early part of her life. It focuses on her life up to , with recollections of growing up in housing projects in New York and descriptions of the challenges she faced. It's an eloquent and affecting testament to the triumph of brains and hard work over circumstance, of a childhood dream realized through extraordinary will and dedication. On December 31, , Sotomayor pressed the ceremonial button and led the final second countdown at the Times Square New Year's Eve ball drop , being the first United States Supreme Court justice to perform the task.
She was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in In June , the Bronxdale Houses development, where Sotomayor grew up, was renamed after her. While many New York housing developments are named after well-known people, this was only the second to be named after a former resident.
Sotomayor Learning Academies , a public high school complex in Los Angeles , was named after her. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Sonia Sotomayor Supreme Court nomination. Supreme Court of the United States. Retrieved April 26, Retrieved June 23, The New York Times. Retrieved May 31, See Princeton yearbook image. Questionnaire for Judicial Nominees , reprinted in proceedings of Senate Hearing no. Retrieved February 13,
Archived from the original on March 3, Simple Economic Models 4.
A set based on yields on UK government bonds also known as gilts. S Supreme Court, vote against Neil Gorsuch, or can't you say?