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Journal of International Management Studies. ISSN Volume 13* Number 2* August CONTENTS. What is the Role of Editors in the Publication Process?

Provided the result is positive, not negative. Capital Guaranteed - An investment where your money principal is guaranteed safe; usually by a bank, government body, or life insurance company. Cash Management Trust - A unit trust where investors unit holders pool their money into money market instruments which are normally only available to professional investors with hundreds of thousands of dollars to invest in the money market. Cash trusts operate with a trust deed, a trustee overseeing activities and a management company responsible for the investment strategy.

Compound Interest - Interest which is paid on accumulated interest as well as the original principal invested. Consumer Price Index C. I - Measures the national inflation rate. The index is measured quarterly December, March, June and September quarters and reflects changes in prices up or down of a fixed "basket" or list of goods and services. Debenture - A type of fixed interest security, issued by companies as borrowers in return for medium and long term investment of funds.

Debentures are issued to the general public through a prospectus and are secured by a trust deed which spells out the terms and conditions of fund-raising and the rights of debenture holders. Deferred Annuity - An annuity where income payments do not commence i. Dividend - The share of profits distributed to shareholders of a publicly listed company. Dividend Imputation - A tax system, where dividends paid by a taxpaying Australian company to its shareholders, carry a credit for the tax the company has already paid on its profits.

This means that shareholders receive a reduction to the tax normally payable. Eligible Termination Payment ETP - This is the term used to describe lump sum funds received when retiring or changing employment that can be rolled over into an Approved Deposit Fund or Deferred Annuity. Franked Dividend - A dividend distributed by an Australian company out of profits on which company tax has been paid.

Investment Bonds - A lump sum investment product. Technically, an investment or insurance bond is a single premium lump sum investment, life insurance contract. Negative Gearing - A way of obtaining tax advantages through an investment where the deductible expenses typically including interest exceed the income derived from the investment. Pension - A regular payment made to a person from a superannuation fund or from the Department of Social Security or Department of Veterans Affairs.

Rollover - The renewal of a loan facility or continuation of a deposit at each maturity date, usually including a revision of the interest rates. The term is also used to describe the transfer of Eligible Termination Payments to an acceptable superannuation or rollover fund. Shareholder - A person who buys a portion of a public or private company's capital. By doing so that person becomes a shareholder in that company's assets and receives a share of the company's profit in the form of dividends.

Superannuation - An investment vehicle which operates primarily to provide benefits for retirement. Superannuation savings are usually made through trust funds and if these funds meet prescribed government standards they are eligible for tax concessions. Term Deposit - Money invested for a fixed term at a fixed rate of interest which applies for the duration of the deposit.

Unit Trust - A unit trust is an investment which operates under the unit principle enabling investors to share in a pool of professionally managed investments. The success of a unit trust depends on the expertise and experience of the management company which is responsible for the trust's investment strategy. Common types of investment undertaken by unit trusts are property, shares, mortgages, and the Short Term Money Market.

Adjustments - Amount of property taxes, council and water rates prepaid by the vendor and adjusted at settlement for amounts for which the purchaser will be liable. Agent's Commission - This fee usually a percentage of the sale price is payable to a real estate agent for selling a house. Amortisation period - Time taken to reduce the value of the debt through payment of regular instalments until the loan has been paid off in full.

Appraised value - An estimate of the value of property offered as security for a home loan. The appraisal is undertaken for financial lending purposes and may not reflect the actual market value. Body Corporate - A strata corporation incorporated in relation to land subdivided wholly or mainly for residential purposes under a law providing for strata, cluster, precent or other subdivision of land or whose issued shares give a right to occupy land for residential purposes.

The Body Corporate usually has the responsibility for the management and upkeep of common areas of the property. Brick veneer - A type of building in which a structural timber frame is tied to a single brick external wall.

Bridging finance - Short term finance used when buying and selling houses to cover the gap between receipt of funds from sale of existing house and the payment of funds to purchase another house. Building regulations - Designed to uphold the standards of public safety, health, and construction, these regulations are in place and have been formulated by responsible authorities to control the quality of buildings.

Capital gain - Profit from sale of a particular asset at a higher market price than it cost. Investors often buy for the sale of an expected increase in value of an asset rather than of the income it may generate during the time they own it.

This means that buyers of goods in this case, landed property are responsible to examine the goods the property being purchased closely or read the fine print to the contract carefully before completing the purchase. Under common law this means that if someone is sold faulty goods he or she has no right to obtain compensation.

Certificate of Title - The document of title to the estate or interest in land. It sets out the Crown description of the land, proprietorship and shows any registered interests such as mortgagees, charges and caveators.

It also shows any restrictive covenants and easements which affect the estate or interest. Chattels - Chattels are personal property. There are two types - the first type are real chattels buildings and fixtures and the second type are personal chattels clothes, furniture etc.

Cluster Title - Each Cluster Title holder has a Certificate of Title which specifies ownership in terms of a particular area for which the owner is responsible, and defines the common property. Unlike Strata Title, it does not subdivide "airspace". Common area - An area which is for use by many, not an individual.

For example, home units have common areas such as stairs and driveways. Company Title - This Title applies when a company owns the whole of the property. By purchasing shares in the company, the purchaser obtains an entitlement to occupy a particular part of the property. See your solicitor before buying. Comparison Rate - The Comparison Rate provides an indicative interest rate that takes into account certain costs associated with setting up a loan.

The Comparison Rate does not include government and statutory fees, since these are standard across all loans regardless of the lender. It also doesn't include other fees and charges that are 'event based' and which may or may not apply throughout the term of your loan for example, redraw fees and early repayment costs.

Contract Note - The first document signed on buying a house is sometimes a Contract Note, instead of a Contract of Sale. This document, when signed by both parties, is as legally binding as a Contract of Sale and the buyer and seller should treat it with the same importance.

Contract of Sale - A written agreement which details the terms and conditions regarding the purchase or sale of a property. It is usually prepared by the vendor's agent, solicitor or conveyancer. Conveyancing - The legal process where ownership of real estate is transferred from one party to another. Cornice - A horizontal decorative moulding usually positioned where the wall meets the ceiling. Cover note - This is a document giving temporary insurance cover over a property until a formal policy is issued by the insurance company.

Deposit - An amount of money placed in trust or paid to the vendor directly as evidence of intention to buy. Easement - A right that an individual enjoys over land belonging to another.

Encumbrance - A legal claim on a particular property. Equity - The part of an asset house which you own over and above the amount borrowed from the Bank which has a mortgage over the house property.

Fibro cement - Building material made of compressed fibres cemented into rigid sheets. Fittings - Things that can be removed from a property without causing damage to it, such as drapes. Fixed rate loan - A loan priced at a fixed rate of interest for a set term. Interest rate and payments remain the same during the fixed term of the loan regardless of interest rate changes in the market. Fixtures - Things that are affixed to and form part of the property.

Foundation - The compact sand, gravel, hard clay or rock upon which the footings rest. Freehold - Common term used for an 'estate in fee simple'.

This means that the proprietor of the land has absolute ownership of the property. Gable - The triangular part of a building's end wall which extends up to meet the two slopes of a roof. Home units - A grouping of residential dwellings.

They share common areas e. Inventory - A listing of items that could be included with a property, e. Joint tenants - The holding of land by two or more persons where there is a right of survivorship i. Laminated timber - Layers of timber glued and pressed together to increase rigidity or to use as bench tops or cupboard doors. Land tax - Based on the property value, it is a State Government tax which is payable by the owners of the property. Lease - An agreement between two parties under which one is granted the right to use the property of the other for a specified period of time in return for a series of payment by the user to the owner.

Leasehold - The right to use and have exclusive possession but not ownership of real estate for a specified period and subject to the fulfilment of certain conditions as recorded in a lease agreement. Loan Repayment Capacity - Your monthly fixed debt commitments divided by your monthly gross income expressed as a percentage.

Loan to Valuation Ratio - The amount of the loan financed as a proportion of the property value, expressed as a percentage. Manhole - An opening which permits access to the space between the roof and the ceiling, or below the floor.

Mortgage - A document drawn up between a borrower and lender, giving the lender a conditional right to property as security for the money lent. Multiple listing - This happens when a person selling a property gives it to more than one agent. The first agent who has a buyer ready, willing and able to meet the price and terms acceptable to the vendor, receives the commission for the sale.

Offer to purchase - A written offer of a specified price for a specified property. The offer may be firm no conditions attached or conditional certain conditions apply. Plan - This shows the ground plan design, elevation of house, number and size of rooms, kitchen, bathrooms, laundry layout and position of the house on the land. Private treaty sale - Sale of property via an agent through private negotiation and contract.

Rafter - Part of the framework of the roof, the rafters slope down from the ridge to the eaves. Ridge - Usually horizontal, this is the peak of the roof where the top end of each rafter is attached. Right of Way - A person may have the right to cross your property to gain access to their own property, or there may be a general pathway across the land.

This is an example of an easement. Rise and Fall clause - This clause may be contained in a building contract. It provides for an upward or downward contract price which correlates to the movement of prices, wages or other factors specified in the clause. Security - Something given or deposited as surety for the payment of debt.

In the case of home loans, the property which is to be bought with the loan money usually acts as the security. Semi-detached - Two houses joined together with a common wall or walls; they are usually registered under Torrens Title.

Settlement date - The date on which the sale of the property is finalised; money and security changes hands and the new owner takes possession.

Shingles - Thin pieces of wood or other material set in overlapping rows to form a roof or wall cladding. Stamp duty - Revenue raised by governments on written instruments such as agreements, conveyances, transfers of land. When buying a home, the most common types of stamp duty payable are stamp duty on transfer of land and stamp duty on mortgage. Strata Title - Most commonly used for flats and units, this title gives you the ownership of a small piece of a larger property.

You have sole right to a particular unit and can lease, sell or legally dispose of your unit as you desire. You also have an undivided share of the common land. You also become a member of the Body Corporate which controls maintenance. Stratum Title - This title gives you legal ownership over a piece of property and also gives you a share in the company set up to look after the common areas of the flats or units you live in. It does not include "air space".

Tenants in common - Each tenant or owner owns a specified share of the land. Shares can be equal or unequal. Unlike joint tenants, there is no right of survivorship. Each share may be dealt with by sale, bequest, gift etc. Title search - A Search undertaken of records registered at the land titles office to confirm interests in land of a particular land property.

A title search show interests such as proprietor, mortgagees, charges, and caveators. The search also reveals any restrictive covenants and easements which affect the estate or interest. Torrens Title System - Title is under a system given the name of its South Australian author in The principles of this system are expressed in State Land Title and Real Property Acts and any act or acts amending or re-enacting them. This system gives a registered proprietor of an interest in land a perfect and unchallenged titles, subject only to the encumbrances and conditions mentioned on the title certificate.

Townhouse - Detached or attached housing forming part of a cluster of homes sharing some common grounds. Normally has own private entrance and private areas. Can be single or multi storey. Transfer of Land - A document registered in the Land Titles Office which recognises and acknowledges change of property ownership. This is also noted on the Certificate of Title. Uncommitted Monthly Income - Your available net income once all monthly expenses including loan repayments have been taken into consideration.

Underpinning - Supports placed under an existing wall to provide added strength. Valuation - A report written by a registered valuer, detailing their opinion of the property value.

Variable Rate Loan - A loan for which the interest rate changes as conditions in the money market change. Zoning - Zonings fall into many categories, the two most common being commercial and residential. Account - See 'Bank account'. Administration fees - Ongoing monthly fee that is charged by a bank for managing the bank account and providing the bank account services used by you.

Advocate - A person who supports, acts or speaks for you or another person or assists to communicate with authorities. See also 'Customer Identification Process'. Amount due - The amount of money that has to be paid on an outstanding account.

Annual percentage rate - The rate at which interest is charged over a yearly period in respect of money that is owed. Interest is usually calculated on a daily basis and may be charged monthly, quarterly or annually. ANZ is one of the largest companies in Australia and New Zealand and a major international banking and financial services group. ANZ is one of the top 50 banks in the world and is Australia's leading bank in Asia.

Arrears - The amount you have not paid in respect of scheduled repayments for a debt owed i. This is different from the balance owing.

Asset - Interest which is paid on accumulated interest as well as the original principal invested. Asset secured - An asset that has been offered by you to secure the repayment of a loan. For example, if you take out a loan to buy a car, you will usually be required to provide the lender a bank or another creditor the car as security for that loan. If you fail to repay the loan, the lender may claim the security in this case the car and sell it to recover some or all of the outstanding money owed by you.

A secured asset cannot be sold by the borrower debtor without the written permission of the lender. When a secured asset is sold, the lender holding the security gets paid first, to the value of the outstanding balance of the loan plus fees. Only the loan that is secured can be cleared by this security. ASIC is responsible for, among other things, consumer protection in superannuation, insurance, banking and credit.

ASIC also regulates and enforces laws that promote honesty and fairness in financial products and services, in financial markets and in Australian companies. Automatic deduction - See Direct Debit. Automatic Teller Machine ATM - A machine placed in supermarkets, outside banks and other public places that can be used to withdraw money from your account.

Some ATMs accept cash deposits and cheques, provide current account balances, transfer money between your accounts and repay credit cards. Many ATMs can be accessed 24 hours a day. Balance - The amount of money in your bank account. The closing balance from the previous period becomes the opening balance for the next period. Bank - In Australia, banks are financial institutions authorised under the Banking Act They offer a variety of financial products and services.

For example, for individual customers they offer bank accounts, payments services, credit cards, home loans, car loans, investments and some times insurance.

For companies they also offer a large range of products and services. In Australia one bank can usually meet all of your financial and insurance requirements. Bank account - A financial product which allows you to deposit your money and gives you easy access to your money in the future.

Sustainable Stock Exchanges Initiative. Retrieved 14 May Retrieved 23 May World Federation of Exchanges. Largest stock exchanges by market capitalization. Economy of South Korea. International rankings Regions by GDP. Due to the political instability that these countries often experience, the market responds so swift to any issue from these countries.

At its heart, the response of the market to such events is in response to the potential drop in supplies from these countries. At such periods, coffee prices go up. Here is an instance. While much emphasis was not laid at that time with regard to coffee prices due to the fact that coffee prices had been up for most of the year, this event sure caused a bit of change in the coffee market. The fear was that the crisis could escalate and go all the way to threaten green coffee production in the country.

Climatic factors Coffee is highly sensitive to weather conditions. It just does not thrive in certain weather conditions. From what history has shown us, we can safely say rain has to fall just about the right time and sun has to shine at right time for coffee plants to grow properly.

When these things do not happen as they should, farm output becomes low and hence, supplies become a problem. This situation usually sends prices high. However, due to the global warming, these unfavorable weather conditions is what the world is now witnessing, and Brazil has had its fair share so far.

For instance, coffee prices saw surged significantly in , which was initiated by an unprecedented drought. Usually, for optimum growth, rainfalls in the early months of the year are vital to coffee producers in Brazil, as this is the key rainfall period leading into the growing season. Up until August, the drought, which had stopped, was still moving coffee prices, with analysts saying that the drought might have resulted in 20 to 30 percent crop loss, signaling that supplies would tighten up.

His Majesty Congratulatory Message

Saving is a good way to make sure you are able to meet your needs and the requirements of different life events. Bridging finance - Short term finance used when buying and selling houses to cover the gap between receipt of funds from sale of existing house and the payment of funds to purchase another house.

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