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The average coefficient of variation for phospho-protein analysis was 8. Participants were instructed to maintain their normal dietary intake leading up to experiment trials. Prior to statistical procedures, all data were assessed for normal distribution, homogeneity of variance, and sphericity.

If the assumption of sphericity was violated, a Greenhouse—Geisser correction was applied. In the event of a significant F ratio, LSD post hoc tests were used for pairwise comparisons. Area under the curve AUC was also calculated for biochemical measures using a standard trapezoidal technique. AUC analysis was analyzed via paired samples t -tests. A Muscle activation during the squat exercise.

B Muscle activation during the leg press exercise. LDH and lactate concentrations Figs. Myoglobin concentration following resistance exercise. Lactate dehydrogenase LDH concentration following resistance exercise. Lactate concentration following resistance exercise. The difference between trials was not significant for any other time point. Blood variables were not corrected for plasma volume shifts due to the importance of molar exposure at the tissue receptor level.

Phosphorylation status of signaling proteins were determined relative to total protein concentration and are therefore reported as arbitrary units AU.

Resistance exercise initiates a multifaceted biochemical response regulating muscle protein synthesis and growth. In this study, signaling proteins within the mTORC1 pathway were examined in conjunction with circulating hormonal concentrations following two different lower-body resistance exercise protocols in resistance-trained men.

The HV and HI protocol design was typical of specific mesocycles e. Although workout volume was designed to be different a priori, both protocols required participants to use an intensity load that required maximal effort to achieve the required repetition range i. This effort appeared to cause greater changes in markers of muscle damage i. Significant differences in the endocrine response were also observed between protocols. GH, cortisol, and insulin responses were significantly greater during HV than HI, however, no differences between protocols were observed for either the IGF-1 or testosterone response.

Intramuscular anabolic signaling analysis revealed that only the phosphorylation of IGF1R at 1H was significantly greater during HV than HI, while no other differences were noted in the phosphorylation of all other signaling proteins between HV and HI.

The intensity used during each resistance exercise protocol produced similar muscle activation across sets in both the squat and leg press exercises.

The results of this study indicated that HV and HI elicited similar muscle activation; however, it is important to note that during HV, considering the greater volume of training, the muscle activation was provided for a longer period of time. While microtrauma to skeletal muscle fibers is accompanied by an inflammatory response, indirect markers of muscle damage have not shown to be a consistent indicator of exercise-mediated adaptation Brentano and Martins Although both protocols elicited significant increases in circulating myoglobin and LDH concentrations, the role of exercise-induced elevations of markers of muscle damage in promoting gene expression influencing skeletal muscle adaptation remains unclear.

Despite differences in markers of muscle damage between trials, intramuscular anabolic signaling did not appear to differ between the protocols. Exercise-induced metabolic stress may also play a role in acute activation of mTORC1 signaling. Metabolic stress results from exercise that primarily relies on anaerobic glycolysis as its major energy provider. In this study, elevated blood lactate concentrations were observed following HV and HI, however, the lactate response was greater following HV.

Despite large differences in blood lactate concentrations between protocols, intramuscular anabolic signaling did not appear to be different.

Lactate production may contribute to mTORC1 activation, however, the mechanisms by which metabolic stress influences anabolic signaling are not fully elucidated and warrant further investigation.

Acute program variables, including exercise intensity, volume, and rest, have been shown to influence the endocrine response following resistance exercise Kraemer and Ratamess The results of this present study appear to be consistent with some, but not all of the previous investigations.

The GH, cortisol, and insulin response to exercise was significantly greater following HV compared to HI, while no significant differences between the protocols were observed for IGF-1 or testosterone. Using a transgenic mouse model, Spangenburg and colleagues reported that both Akt and p70S6k activation can be induced independent of a functioning IGF-1 receptor. Both resistance exercise protocols resulted in significant elevations in RPS6 phosphorylation, while not stimulating any change in p70S6k phosphorylation.

The protein kinase mTOR serves as a critical protein which confers signaling to p70S6k and several other downstream signaling molecules that regulate protein synthesis and skeletal muscle mass Hornberger ; Goodman Although the exact role of RPS6 in the regulation of protein synthesis remains unclear, RPS6 is a downstream target of p70S6k with the potential to regulate protein synthesis and is commonly used as an indirect marker of mTORC1 activation Goodman Based upon the results of this study, it appears that HV and HI resistance exercise protocols elicit similar acute mTORC1 activation in resistance-trained men.

Despite significant differences in the endocrine response following HV and HI, both protocols stimulated similar mTORC1 activation following resistance exercise. Since the end result of both resistance exercise and growth factors is the movement of TSC2 away from Rheb via different upstream kinases, resistance exercise and hormonal exposure may not offer a synergistic effect. This appears to be consistent with the results of this study, in which the greater GH, cortisol, and insulin response following HV did not appear to augment intramuscular anabolic signaling.

The prominent role of acute increases in hormones such as GH and cortisol may be to meet a greater metabolic demand caused by the resistance exercise protocol, rather than promoting muscle protein synthesis.

This study investigated the acute anabolic response following two typical lower-body resistance exercise paradigms in experienced, resistance-trained men. A potential limitation of this study is that time-under-tension, total work, and contraction velocity were not quantified during each protocol. In addition, the regulation of additional receptors i. In conclusion, HI appeared to cause greater changes in markers of muscle damage e.

Despite significant differences in lactate, myoglobin, LDH, and hormone concentrations following HV and HI, the regulation of signaling proteins within mTORC1 appeared to be similar following both protocols in resistance-trained men. The authors thank Alyssa N. Varanoske, Ran Wang, Michael B.

Hoffman, and Josh J. Riffe for their assistance in data collection. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Physiol Rep v. Published online Jul Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Resistance exercise paradigms are often divided into high volume HV or high intensity HI protocols, however, it is unknown whether these protocols differentially stimulate mTORC1 signaling. Introduction Resistance exercise paradigms are often divided into high volume HV or high intensity HI protocols. Materials and Methods Participants Ten resistance-trained men Maximal strength testing Prior to experimental trials, participants reported to the Human Performance Laboratory HPL to establish maximal strength 1-RM on all lifts involved in the exercise protocol.

Table 1 Resistance Exercise Protocols. Open in a separate window. Muscle activation To investigate muscle activation, EMG analysis of the vastus lateralis of the nondominant leg was assessed during every repetition for the multijoint exercises barbell back squat and bilateral leg press during each resistance exercise protocol.

Blood measurements During each experimental trial, blood samples were obtained using a Teflon cannula placed in a superficial forearm vein using a three-way stopcock with a male luer lock adapter and plastic syringe. Intramuscular anabolic signaling analysis Tissue samples were thawed and kept on ice for preparation and homogenization.

Dietary logs Participants were instructed to maintain their normal dietary intake leading up to experiment trials. Statistical analysis Prior to statistical procedures, all data were assessed for normal distribution, homogeneity of variance, and sphericity. Table 2 Myoglobin concentration following resistance exercise. Discussion Resistance exercise initiates a multifaceted biochemical response regulating muscle protein synthesis and growth.

Acknowledgments The authors thank Alyssa N. Conflict of Interest None declared. American college of sports medicine position stand: Characterization and regulation of mechanical loading-induced compensatory muscle hypertrophy. Muscle hypertrophy, hormonal adaptations and strength development during strength training in strength-trained and untrained men.

Leucine stimulates translation initiation in skeletal muscle of postabsorptive rats via a rapamycin-sensitive pathway. Phosphorylation of p70S6k correlates with increased skeletal muscle mass following resistance exercise. Low-load resistance training promotes muscular adaptation regardless of vascular occlusion, load, or volume. Salivary testosterone and cortisol responses in professional rugby players after four resistance exercise protocols. A review on strength exercise-induced muscle damage: Strength testing—predicting a one-rep max from reps-to-fatigue.

Low-load high volume resistance exercise stimulates muscle protein synthesis more than high-load low volume resistance exercise in young men. Muscle time under tension during resistance exercise stimulates differential muscle protein sub-fractional synthetic responses in men. Bigger weights may not beget bigger muscles: How should we normalize electromyograms obtained from healthy participants? Early time course of Akt phosphorylation after endurance and resistance exercise.

The molecular bases of training adaptation. Early signaling responses to divergent exercise stimuli in skeletal muscle from well-trained humans. The salivary testosterone and cortisol response to three loading schemes. A review of resistance training-induced changes in skeletal muscle protein synthesis and their contribution to hypertrophy. Calculation of percentage changes in volumes of blood, plasma, and red cells in dehydration.

Rapamycin administration in humans blocks the contraction-induced increase in skeletal muscle protein synthesis. Activation of mTOR signalling in young and old human skeletal muscle in response to combined resistance exercise and whey protein ingestion. Muscle damage and muscle remodeling: The motor unit firing rate and the power spectrum of EMG in humans. High force development augments skeletal muscle signalling in resistance exercise modes equalized for time under tension.

Association between myosin heavy chain protein isoforms and intramuscular anabolic signaling following resistance exercise in trained men. The role of mTORC1 in regulating protein synthesis and skeletal muscle mass in response to various mechanical stimuli. A single set of low intensity resistance exercise immediately following high intensity resistance exercise stimulates growth hormone secretion in men. Hormonal responses of multiset versus single-set heavy-resistance exercise protocols.

Methods for controlling type I error across multiple hypothesis tests. Analysing and Understanding Data. Disassociation between the effects of amino acids and insulin on signaling, ubiquitin ligases, and protein turnover in human muscle.

Activation of mTORC1 signaling and protein synthesis in human muscle following blood flow restriction exercise is inhibited by rapamycin. Acute hormonal responses to two different fatiguing heavy-resistance protocols in male athletes. Functional significance of cell size in spinal motoneurons.

Hoffman, and Josh J.

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Resistance exercise initiates a multifaceted biochemical response regulating muscle protein synthesis and growth.

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