Lebensversicherungen in Schwellenländern

Welche Schwellenländer sehen das stärkste Wachstum im Versicherungssektor?

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However this permission was not taken, a notice was sent to the orphanage, this was disputed by the orphanage trust and finally, the Wakf board and the orphanage came to an agreement. However, a PIL was filed a decade later by Abdul Matin, against the orphanage and the Charity commissioners permission. The sqm [21] plot of land had been previously owned by the Currimbhoy Ebrahim Khoja Yateemkhana an orphanage.

The Waqf minister Nawab Malik opposed this land sale, as did the revenue department of the Government of Maharashtra. Thus a stay order was issued on the sale of the land. The Waqf board also initially opposed the deal and filed a PIL in the Supreme Court challenging the decision of the trust. In the Allahabad government said the structure is illegal because the land's owner, the Waqf Board, had no right to sell it, as Waqf property can neither be sold nor transferred.

In regards to the three helipads , the Indian Navy said it will not allow the construction of helipads on Mumbai buildings, while the Environment Ministry, following a representation from Awaaz Foundation , [31] said the helipads violate local noise laws.

In it was reported that Ambani had yet to move into the home, despite its completion, for fear of "bad luck". Rasiwasia, an expert in Vastu shastra , claims the home does not conform to Vastu requirements. Mark Magnier has commented that while some Indians are proud of the ostentatious house, others see it as "shameful in a nation where many children go hungry. Tata Group former chairman Ratan Tata said Antilla is an example of rich Indians' lack of empathy for the poor.

If he is not, then it's sad because this country needs people to allocate some of their enormous wealth to finding ways of mitigating the hardship that people have. That's what revolutions are made of. A History of the Business [4]. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Antilia Mumbai. It's a stupendous show of wealth, it's kind of positioning business tycoons as the new maharajah of India. Guests arrive at Mukesh Ambani's residence Antilla".

Daily News and Analysis. Archived from the original on 1 August Retrieved 29 July Archived from the original on 18 October Retrieved 14 October Retrieved 4 November The New York Times.

Retrieved 9 January — via Huff Post. Retrieved 13 October Archived from the original on 30 October Retrieved 28 October Retrieved 18 April Retrieved 26 October Many of the Turkic Mamluk slaves eventually rose up to become rulers, and conquered large parts of the Muslim world , establishing Mamluk Sultanates from Egypt to Afghanistan , before turning their attention to the Indian subcontinent.

It is also part of a longer trend predating the spread of Islam. Like other settled , agrarian societies in history, those in the Indian subcontinent have been attacked by nomadic tribes throughout its long history. In evaluating the impact of Islam on the subcontinent, one must note that the northwestern subcontinent was a frequent target of tribes raiding from Central Asia in the pre-Islamic era. In that sense, the Muslim intrusions and later Muslim invasions were not dissimilar to those of the earlier invasions during the 1st millennium.

The wave of raids on north Indian and western Indian kingdoms by Muslim warlords continued after Mahmud of Ghazni. Aibak was of Cuman - Kipchak Turkic origin, and due to his lineage, his dynasty is known as the Mamluk Slave dynasty not to be confused with the Mamluk dynasty of Iraq or the Mamluk dynasty of Egypt.

After a series of conquests and brutal executions of opposition, Iltutmish consolidated his power. Following his death, the Delhi Sultanate saw a succession of weak rulers, disputing Muslim nobility, assassinations, and short-lived tenures.

Khalji assassinated Qaiqabad and assumed power, thus ending the Mamluk dynasty and starting the Khalji dynasty. The Khalji dynasty was of Turko-Afghan heritage. Firuz Khalji had already gathered enough support among the Afghans for taking over the crown. He was around 70 years old at the time of his ascension, and was known as a mild-mannered, humble and kind monarch to the general public. Ala ud-Din began his military career as governor of Kara province, from where he led two raids on Malwa and Devagiri for plunder and loot.

His military campaigning returned to these lands as well other south Indian kingdoms after he assumed power. He conquered Gujarat , Ranthambore, Chittor , and Malwa. The Mongols withdrew after plundering and stopped raiding northwest parts of the Delhi Sultanate.

They collected lots of war booty anwatan from those they defeated. Among the spoils was the Warangal loot that included the famous Koh-i-noor diamond. Markets called "shahana-i-mandi" were created. No one other than these merchants could buy from farmers or sell in cities. Those found violating these "mandi" rules were severely punished, often by mutilation. Taxes collected in the form of grain were stored in the kingdom's storage.

During famines that followed, these granaries ensured sufficient food for the army. Historians note Ala ud-Din Khalji as being a tyrant.

Anyone Ala ud-Din suspected of being a threat to this power was killed along with the women and children of that family. In , between 15, and 30, people near Delhi, who had recently converted to Islam, were slaughtered in a single day, due to fears of an uprising.

After Ala ud-Din's death in , his eunuch general Malik Kafur, who was born in a Hindu family in India and had converted to Islam, tried to assume power. He lacked the support of Persian and Turkic nobility and was subsequently killed. Khusro Khan's reign lasted only a few months, when Ghazi Malik, later to be called Ghiyath al-Din Tughlaq , killed him and assumed power in , thus ending the Khalji dynasty and starting the Tughlaq dynasty.

The Tughlaq dynasty lasted from to nearly the end of the 14th century. He was of Turko-Indian origins; his father was a Turkic slave and his mother was a Hindu. Juna Khan rechristened himself as Muhammad bin Tughlaq and ruled for 26 years. Muhammad bin Tughlaq was an intellectual, with extensive knowledge of the Quran, Fiqh , poetry and other fields. He was also deeply suspicious of his kinsmen and wazirs ministers , extremely severe with his opponents, and took decisions that caused economic upheaval.

For example, he ordered minting of coins from base metals with face value of silver coins - a decision that failed because ordinary people minted counterfeit coins from base metal they had in their houses and used them to pay taxes and jizya. On another occasion, after becoming upset by some accounts, or to run the Sultanate from the center of India by other accounts, Muhammad bin Tughlaq ordered the transfer of his capital from Delhi to Devagiri in modern-day Maharashtra renaming it to Daulatabad , by forcing the mass migration of Delhi's population.

Those who refused were killed. One blind person who failed to move to Daulatabad was dragged for the entire journey of 40 days - the man died, his body fell apart, and only his tied leg reached Daulatabad. The capital then returned to Delhi. Nevertheless, Muhammad bin Tughlaq's orders affected history as a large number of Delhi Muslims who came to the Deccan area did not return to Delhi to live near Muhammad bin Tughlaq.

This influx of the then-Delhi residents into the Deccan region led to a growth of Muslim population in central and southern India. Revolts against Muhammad bin Tughlaq began in , continued over his reign, and over time the geographical reach of the Sultanate shrunk. The Vijayanagara Empire originated in southern India as a direct response to attacks from the Delhi Sultanate.

Few survived the journey, and they were executed upon their return for failing. To cover state expenses, he sharply raised taxes. Those who failed to pay taxes were hunted and executed. Famines, widespread poverty, and rebellion grew across the kingdom. In his own nephew rebelled in Malwa, whom he attacked, caught, and flayed alive.

Muhammad bin Tughlaq did not have the resources or support to respond to the shrinking kingdom. Muhammad bin Tughlaq died in while trying to chase and punish people in Gujarat who were rebelling against the Delhi Sultanate. However, Bengal did not fall.

Firuz Shah ruled for 37 years. His reign attempted to stabilize the food supply and reduce famines by commissioning an irrigation canal from the Yamuna river. An educated sultan, Firuz Shah left a memoir. Firuz Shah Tughlaq also lists his accomplishments to include converting Hindus to Sunni Islam by announcing an exemption from taxes and jizya for those who convert, and by lavishing new converts with presents and honours.

Simultaneously, he raised taxes and jizya, assessing it at three levels, and stopping the practice of his predecessors who had historically exempted all Hindu Brahmins from the jizya. The reign of Firuz Shah Tughlaq was marked by reduction in extreme forms of torture, eliminating favours to select parts of society, but also increased intolerance and persecution of targeted groups.

The death of Firuz Shah Tughlaq created anarchy and disintegration of the kingdom. The last rulers of this dynasty both called themselves Sultan from to Timur , also known as Tamerlane in Western scholarly literature, was the Turkic ruler of the Timurid Empire.

He became aware of the weakness and quarreling of the rulers of the Delhi Sultanate, so he marched with his army to Delhi, plundering and killing all the way. He looted the lands he crossed, then plundered and burnt Delhi. Over five days, Timur and his army raged a massacre.

The people and lands within the Delhi Sultanate were left in a state of anarchy, chaos, and pestilence. The Sayyid dynasty was a Turkic dynasty [83] that ruled the Delhi Sultanate from to Annemarie Schimmel notes the first ruler of the dynasty as Khizr Khan , who assumed power by claiming to represent Timur.

His authority was questioned even by those near Delhi. His successor was Mubarak Khan, who rechristened himself as Mubarak Shah and tried to regain lost territories in Punjab, unsuccessfully. With the power of the Sayyid dynasty faltering, Islam's history on the Indian subcontinent underwent a profound change, according to Schimmel.

The Lodi dynasty belonged to the Pashtun [84] Afghan Lodi tribe. Thereafter, the region from Delhi to Varanasi then at the border of Bengal province , was back under influence of Delhi Sultanate. After Bahlul Lodi died, his son Nizam Khan assumed power, rechristened himself as Sikandar Lodi and ruled from to The Muslim governors of Bihar agreed to pay tribute and taxes, but operated independent of the Delhi Sultanate.

Sikandar Lodi led a campaign of destruction of temples, particularly around Mathura. He also moved his capital and court from Delhi to Agra , [87] [ citation needed ] an ancient Hindu city that had been destroyed during the plunder and attacks of the early Delhi Sultanate period.

Sikandar thus erected buildings with Indo-Islamic architecture in Agra during his rule, and the growth of Agra continued during the Mughal Empire, after the end of Delhi Sultanate. Sikandar Lodi died a natural death in , and his second son Ibrahim Lodi assumed power. Ibrahim did not enjoy the support of Afghan and Persian nobles or regional chiefs.

Before and during the Delhi Sultanate, Islamic civilization was the most cosmopolitan civilization of the Middle Ages.

It had a multicultural and pluralistic society, and wide-ranging international networks, including social and economic networks, spanning large parts of Afro-Eurasia , leading to escalating circulation of goods, peoples, technologies and ideas.

While initially disruptive due to the passing of power from native Indian elites to Turkic Muslim elites, the Delhi Sultanate was responsible for integrating the Indian subcontinent into a growing world system, drawing India into a wider international network, which led to cultural and social enrichment in the Indian subcontinent.

The worm gear roller cotton gin was invented in the Indian subcontinent during the early Delhi Sultanate era of the 13th—14th centuries, [90] and is still used in India through to the present day. The diffusion of the spinning wheel, and the incorporation of the worm gear and crank handle into the roller cotton gin, led to greatly expanded Indian cotton textile production. While the Indian subcontinent has had invaders from Central Asia since ancient times, what made the Muslim invasions different is that unlike the preceding invaders who assimilated into the prevalent social system, the successful Muslim conquerors retained their Islamic identity and created new legal and administrative systems that challenged and usually in many cases superseded the existing systems of social conduct and ethics, even influencing the non-Muslim rivals and common masses to a large extent, though the non-Muslim population was left to their own laws and customs.

This led to the rise of a new Indian culture which was mixed in nature, different from ancient Indian culture. The overwhelming majority of Muslims in India were Indian natives converted to Islam. This factor also played an important role in the synthesis of cultures. Amir Khusro , who lived in the 13th century CE during the Delhi Sultanate period in North India, used a form of Hindustani, which was the lingua franca of the period, in his writings and referred to it as Hindavi.

The bulk of Delhi Sultanate's army consisted of nomadic Turkic Mamluk military slaves, who were skilled in nomadic cavalry warfare. A major military contribution of the Delhi Sultanate was their successful campaigns in repelling the Mongol Empire 's invasions of India , which could have been devastating for the Indian subcontinent, like the Mongol invasions of China , Persia and Europe.

The Delhi Sultanate's Mamluk army were skilled in the same style of nomadic cavalry warfare used by the Mongols, making them successful in repelling the Mongol invasions , as was the case for the Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt. Were it not for the Delhi Sultanate, it is possible that the Mongol Empire may have been successful in invading India.

According to firishta during the battle of kili Alauddin led an army of , cavalry and 2, elephants. During the tughlaq period Muhammad bin tughlaq rose an army of 3 million. The soldiers used weapons such as swords, spears, shields etc. Armour such as steel helmet and chainmail was commonly used. Armored war elephants were effectively used against the enemies such as the Mongols.

It was destroyed by Delhi Sultanate's army in CE. Kakatiya Kala Thoranam Warangal Gate built by the Kakatiya dynasty in ruins; one of the many temple complexes destroyed by the Delhi Sultanate.


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